Published On: Sat, Nov 29th, 2014

Quinnat Salmon – Oncorhynchus-tshawytscha – introduced by 1905

Large Quinnat salmon caught at the mouth of Canterbury's Waimakariri River. Note the bright silver colour when the salmon are fresh from the sea.

Large Quinnat salmon caught at the mouth of Canterbury’s Waimakariri River. Note the bright silver colour when the salmon are fresh from the sea.

Also called King, Chinook and Quinnat Salmon

Also known as King salmon and Chinook salmon, this species was successfully introduced into New Zealand from North America by 1905. In that year, salmon returning to the Waitaki River were observed to be spawning naturally. From then on salmon continued to disperse to other rivers along the South Island’s east coast.

After 1905 Acclimatization Societies, and later Fish and Game Councils, have continued to rear salmon from stripped ova taken from returning salmon, and have distributed the offspring to other rivers and lakes. Quinnat salmon fingerlings introduced to New Zealand freshwater lakes do not spawn. The fisheries are instead maintained by continuous ongoing introductions by Fish and Game Councils.

Wild runs are now well established on the east coast of the South Island. There are smaller runs in some South Island West Coast Rivers. It has not been possible there are no salmon in the North Island of New Zealand.

The salmon become increasingly darker in colour as they make their way up-river to spawn.

The salmon become increasingly darker in colour as they make their way up-river to spawn.

Fertilized salmon eggs laid in high country streambeds hatch after two to three months depending on water temperature. The young salmon, known as parr, remain in fresh water for between 3 and 10 months as they migrate downriver to the sea and its rich supply of prey.

Adult salmon remain at sea for 2 to 3 years before returning to the same river where they were reared to breed and die; so completing the cycle. While at sea 76 percent of their diet was shown to consist of sprats according to a publication released by Gavin James of NIWA. His study was the results of several years work analyzing the stomach contents of over 800 Chinook (or quinnat) salmon taken at sea off the Canterbury coast. Chinook salmon and their distribution in New Zealand – NIWA.

When salmon first return to the rivers from the sea in summer they are bright silver in colour. These salmon have stopped feeding. Fish caught further up-river as they head to their spawning grounds loose condition and become darker and reddish in colour. Sometimes become sunburnt on their backs.

Although quinnat salmon grow to weigh as much as 130 lb (59 kg) in their original native North America, salmon caught in New Zealand usually weigh much less, with the average returning fish being in the region of 5 to 10 kg. In New Zealand, a really big specimen might weigh 42 pounds at the most. You can see here the winning fish weights for salmon entered in the Waitaki Salmon Fishing Contest. A really big New Zealand quinnat salmon would weigh 16 kg.

Planting eyed salmon ova in the Taieri River, Otago. Photograph courtesy of Monty Wright.

Planting eyed salmon ova in the Taieri River, Otago. Photograph courtesy of Monty Wright.

Fish & Game, assisted by many volunteers, release salmon fingerlings in mid-winter at the Montrose hatchery close to the head waters of the Rakaia River.

Fish & Game, assisted by many volunteers, release salmon fingerlings in mid-winter at the Montrose hatchery close to the headwaters of the Rakaia River.

Quinnat salmon fingerling. This is the size the salmon are when released by Fish & Game from their hatchery at Montrose, above the Rakaia Gorge, in the Southern Alps. At this stage, they are known as parr.

Quinnat salmon fingerling. This is the size the salmon are when released by Fish & Game from their hatchery at Montrose, above the Rakaia Gorge, in the Southern Alps. At this stage, they are known as parr. 

This Quinnat salmon was caught and released at McIntoshs Hole on the lower Waimakariri River, near Christchurch. It appears its adipose fin is missing. This fin is clipped off by Fish & Game at the hatchery in order to identify the fish as having been released. It measured about 25cm (10 inches) in length. this is about the size the salmon are when they first go to sea. At this stage, they are called smolts.

This Quinnat salmon was caught and released at McIntoshs Hole on the lower Waimakariri River, near Christchurch. It appears its adipose fin is missing. This fin is clipped off by Fish & Game at the hatchery in order to identify the fish as having been released. It measured about 25cm (10 inches) in length. this is about the size the salmon are when they first go to sea. At this stage, they are called smolts.

A big returning silver salmon caught in the Waitaki River. At this stage they are 3 to 4 years old.

A big returning silver salmon caught in the Waitaki River. At this stage, they are 3 to 4 years old.

Large Quinnat salmon caught at the mouth of Canterbury's Waimakariri River. Note the bright silver colour when the salmon are fresh from the sea.

Large Quinnat salmon caught at the mouth of Canterbury’s Waimakariri River. Note the bright silver colour when the salmon are fresh from the sea.

Video: Salmon fishing at McIntosh’s Rocks 2km upstream from the Waimakariri River mouth.

About the Author

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Fishingmag.co.nz website editor.

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