Quinnat Salmon – Oncorhynchus-tshawytscha – introduced by 1905
Also called King, Chinook and Quinnat Salmon
Also known as King salmon and Chinook salmon, this species was successfully introduced into New Zealand from North America by 1905. In that year, salmon returning to the Waitaki River were observed to be spawning naturally. From then on salmon continued to disperse to other rivers along the South Island’s east coast.
After 1905 Acclimatization Societies, and later Fish and Game Councils, have continued to rear salmon from stripped ova taken from returning salmon, and have distributed the offspring to other rivers and lakes. Quinnat salmon fingerlings introduced to New Zealand freshwater lakes do not spawn. The fisheries are instead maintained by continuous ongoing introductions by Fish and Game Councils.
Wild runs are now well established on the east coast of the South Island. There are smaller runs in some South Island West Coast Rivers. It has not been possible there are no salmon in the North Island of New Zealand.
Fertilized salmon eggs laid in high country streambeds hatch after two to three months depending on water temperature. The young salmon, known as parr, remain in fresh water for between 3 and 10 months as they migrate downriver to the sea and its rich supply of prey.
Adult salmon remain at sea for 2 to 3 years before returning to the same river where they were reared to breed and die; so completing the cycle. While at sea 76 percent of their diet was shown to consist of sprats according to a publication released by Gavin James of NIWA. His study was the results of several years work analyzing the stomach contents of over 800 Chinook (or quinnat) salmon taken at sea off the Canterbury coast. Chinook salmon and their distribution in New Zealand – NIWA.
When salmon first return to the rivers from the sea in summer they are bright silver in colour. These salmon have stopped feeding. Fish caught further up-river as they head to their spawning grounds loose condition and become darker and reddish in colour. Sometimes become sunburnt on their backs.
Although quinnat salmon grow to weigh as much as 130 lb (59 kg) in their original native North America, salmon caught in New Zealand usually weigh much less, with the average returning fish being in the region of 5 to 10 kg. In New Zealand, a really big specimen might weigh 42 pounds at the most. You can see here the winning fish weights for salmon entered in the Waitaki Salmon Fishing Contest. A really big New Zealand quinnat salmon would weigh 16 kg.
Video: Salmon fishing at McIntosh’s Rocks 2km upstream from the Waimakariri River mouth.